File diff 8ea1abb31ecd → 1081bd358292
Show inline comments
@@ -170,25 +170,25 @@
    <p>If you want to download the diagram, it's available
    in <a href="/copyleft-compliance/linux-vs-vmkernel_en.svg">SVG
    (English)</a>, <a href="/copyleft-compliance/linux-vs-vmkernel_en.png">PNG
    (English)</a>, <a href="/copyleft-compliance/linux-vs-vmkernel_de.svg">SVG
    (German)</a>, and <a href="/copyleft-compliance/linux-vs-vmkernel_de.png">PNG

  <dt>Can you explain further in words (rather than a picture) about the central
  component in ESXi that the lawsuit alleges violates the GPL?</dt>
    <p>The GPL violation at issue involves VMware's ESXi product.
    Conservancy independently reviewed ESXi 5.5 and its incomplete
    Conservancy independently reviewed ESXi and its incomplete
      <abbr title="complete, corresponding source">CCS</abbr>
    release as part of our GPL enforcement efforts described above.</p>

    <p>Conservancy's preliminary investigation indicated that the operating
    system kernel of VMware ESXi product consists of three key components:
          <li> the proprietary component &ldquo;vmkernel&rdquo;, which is
            released in binary form only,</li>
            <li>the kernel module &ldquo;vmklinux&rdquo;, which contains modified Linux
Code, and for which (at least some) source code is provided.
            <li>other kernel modules with device drivers, most of which are
            modified Linux drivers, and for which (at least some) source code
@@ -234,114 +234,114 @@ Code, and for which (at least some) source code is provided.
    VMware combined Linux source code with their binary-only components?</dt>

     <dd><p>There are numerous examples available that show this.  The
       details of alleged infringement specifically relating to Hellwig's
       contributions to Linux are of course the main matter of the
       allegations in the litigation, and Conservancy
       released <a href="#diagram">the diagram above</a> to exemplify that
       issue.  Conservancy continues to <a href="#court-documents">hope VMware will
       agree to make public all court documents</a> as a matter of public
       good, since the court documents discuss the specifics of alleged
         infringement on Hellwig's copyrights.</p>

       <p>However, Conservancy examined VMware's ESXi 5.5 product in detail
       <p>However, Conservancy examined VMware's ESXi product in detail
       even before Hellwig's enforcement action began.  Below is one example
       among many where VMware's CCS was incomplete per GPLv2&sect;2(c) and
       GPLv2&sect;3(a).  (One can verify these results by
       <a href="#verify">downloading and installing the binary and source
       packages for VMware's ESXi 5.5 Update 2</a>.)  Note that this
       packages for VMware's ESXi 6.0</a>.)  Note that this
       example below is not necessarily regarding
       Hellwig's copyrights; VMware incorporated Linux code copyrighted by
       many others as well into their kernel.</p>

       <h3>Example of &ldquo;vmkernel&rdquo;'s combination with Linux code</h3>
       <p>Our example begins with examination of the file
           called <code>vmkdrivers/src_92/vmklinux_92/vmware/linux_pci.c</code>,
           which can be found in the &ldquo;Open Source&rdquo; release for
           ESXi 5.5.0 Update 2 (5.5U2).  A small excerpt from that file, found in the
           ESXi 6.0.  A small excerpt from that file, found in the
           function <code>LinuxPCIDeviceRemoved()</code>, reads as follows:</p>

#include &lt;linux/pci.h&gt;
 * This function [...] is modelled after pci_remove_device, the function which would
 * be called in a linux system.
static void
LinuxPCIDeviceRemoved(vmk_PCIDevice vmkDev)
   LinuxPCIDevExt *pciDevExt;
   struct pci_dev *linuxDev;
  if (unlikely(
    vmk_PCIGetDeviceName(vmkDev, vmkDevName, sizeof(vmkDevName)-1) != VMK_OK))
      vmkDevName[0] = 0;

<h4>Combination of &ldquo;vmkernel&rdquo; code with &ldquo;vmkdrivers&rdquo;</h4>

<p>The function, <code>vmk_PCIGetDeviceName()</code> must be defined, with an
      implementation, for this code above to work, or even compile.
      Inside <code>BLD/build/HEADERS/vmkapi-current-all-public/vmkernel64/release/device/vmkapi_pci_incompat.h</code>,
      found in the <code>vmkdrivers</code> package of ESXi 5.5U2, shows a
      Inside <code>BLD/build/HEADERS/vmkapi-current-all-public/generic/release/hardware/vmkapi_pci_incompat.h</code>,
      found in the <code>vmkdrivers</code> package of ESXi 6.0, shows a
      function header definition for <code>vmk_PCIGetDeviceName()</code>.
      However, the source of its implementation is not provided there or
      anywhere in the source release.</p>

<p>Further evidence that the implementation of this function occurs elsewhere
  can by found by running <code>objdump -x</code> on the un-vmtar'ed
  <code>vmklinux_9</code> module.  Note the following output in the &ldquo;SYMBOL
  TABLE&rdquo; section:</p>

0000000000000000         *UND*  0000000000000000 vmk_PCIGetDeviceName

&hellip;and the following lines found in the  &ldquo;RELOCATION RECORDS FOR
[.text]&rdquo; section:

00000000000327ff R_X86_64_PC32     vmk_PCIGetDeviceName+0xfffffffffffffffc
0000000000035318 R_X86_64_PC32     vmk_PCIGetDeviceName+0xfffffffffffffffc
00000000000387e1 R_X86_64_PC32     vmk_PCIGetDeviceName+0xfffffffffffffffc
000000000003cf40 R_X86_64_PC32     vmk_PCIGetDeviceName+0xfffffffffffffffc
0000000000032db3 R_X86_64_PC32     vmk_PCIGetDeviceName+0xfffffffffffffffc
00000000000333ea R_X86_64_PC32     vmk_PCIGetDeviceName+0xfffffffffffffffc
0000000000036644 R_X86_64_PC32     vmk_PCIGetDeviceName+0xfffffffffffffffc
000000000003986a R_X86_64_PC32     vmk_PCIGetDeviceName+0xfffffffffffffffc

<p>The above two properties both suggest that the <code>vmklinux_9</code>
 module requires: (a) a definition of the <code>vmk_PCIGetDeviceName()</code>
 function to operate, but (b) that function is not defined
 inside <code>vmklinux_9</code> itself.</p>

<p>The definition can however be found in binary-only software provided in
  ESXi 5.5U2 &mdash; specifically, inside a file named <code>k.b00</code>,
  ESXi 6.0 &mdash; specifically, inside a file named <code>k.b00</code>,
  which is located in partition 5 on a disk where ESXi has been installed (or
  in the ESXi 5.5U2 installer ISO image).  Running <code>file</code>
  in the ESXi 6.0 installer ISO image).  Running <code>file</code>
  after <code>gunzip</code> on this file yields &ldquo;ELF 64-bit LSB shared
  object&rdquo;.  Meanwhile, <code>file k.b00</code> reports &ldquo;gzip
  compressed data, was &lsquo;vmvisor64-vmkernel.stripped&rsquo;&rdquo;.
  These findings strongly suggests this is an image of the
  &ldquo;vmkernel&rdquo; component.  An <code>objdump -x</code> yields this
  &ldquo;SYMBOL TABLE&rdquo; section:</p>

000041800036a408 g     F .text  0000000000000137 vmk_PCIGetDeviceName
000041800033193c g     F .text  000000000000012e vmk_PCIGetDeviceName

<p>&hellip; which indicated these binary file contains the function body
for  <code>vmk_PCIGetDeviceName</code>.</p>

<p>Furthermore, after detailed searching, Conservancy found no evidence that any
  other code (other than modified Linux code) makes calls
  to <code>vmk_PCIGetDeviceName</code>.  This provides a strong indication
  that this function's primary purpose is to combine Linux code with
  &ldquo;vmkernel&rdquo;.  Conservancy also found other functions where similar analysis
  yields similar results as above.</p>

@@ -349,106 +349,108 @@ for  <code>vmk_PCIGetDeviceName</code>.</p>

<p>Having established the direct and close combination
  of <code>vmk_PCIGetDeviceName</code>
  and <code>LinuxPCIDeviceRemoved()</code>,  focus now on the
  quoted code from <code>LinuxPCIDeviceRemoved()</code>.  That code, note
  that one of the local variables is <code>struct pci_dev *linuxDev;</code>.
  A definition of <code>pci_dev</code> is found in
  <code>vmkdrivers/src_92/include/linux/pci.h</code> (which
  is <code>#include</code>'d above) reads:</p>

struct pci_dev {
#if defined(__VMKLNX__)
        /* 2008: Update from Linux source */
        u8              revision;       /* PCI revision, low byte of class word */
#endif /* defined(__VMKLNX__) */
       struct pci_driver *driver;      /* which driver has allocated this device */
truct pci_driver {
struct pci_driver {
        struct list_head node;
        char *name;
        void (*remove) (struct pci_dev *dev);   /* Device removed (NULL if not a hot-plug capable driver) */
#if defined(__VMKLNX__)
        /* 2008: Update from Linux source */
        u8              revision;       /* PCI revision, low byte of class word */
#endif /* defined(__VMKLNX__) */

<p>These structures, and based on those from Linux itself
  (<a href="">a
    similar version of this file can be seen in Linux 2.6.24</a>), and as can
  be seen above, have been modified to work with &ldquo;vmkernel&rdquo;</p>
  be seen above, have been modified to work with &ldquo;vmkernel&rdquo;.</p>

<p>In <code>LinuxPCIDeviceRemoved()</code>, we saw a macro called with a
  variable, <code>linuxDev</code> which was of type <code>struct pci</code>.
  Thus, the combination of code from Linux's <code>pci.h</code>
  and VMware's <code>vmware/linux_pci.c</code> is very tightly coupled and

<h4><code>VMKAPI_MODULE_CALL_VOID</code> macro calls driver's code</h4>

  file <code>BLD/build/HEADERS/vmkapi-current-all-public/vmkernel64/release/base/vmkapi_module.h</code>
  file <code>BLD/build/HEADERS/vmkapi-current-all-public/generic/release/base/vmkapi_module.h</code>
  contains the macro definition of  <code>VMKAPI_MODULE_CALL_VOID</code>,
  which is quoted below (with debug lines removed):
#define VMKAPI_MODULE_CALL_VOID(moduleID, function, args...)  \
do {                                                    \
    vmk_ModInfoStack modStack;                          \
    vmk_ModulePushId(moduleID, function, &amp;modStack);    \
    (function)(args);                                   \
    )                                                   \
    vmk_ModulePopId();                                  \
} while(0)

<p>When the macro is expanded, it means that <code>(function)(args)</code> is
  actually expanded to <code>linuxDev->driver->remove(linuxDev)</code>.
  Therefore, we see <code>LinuxPCIDeviceRemoved()</code>, makes directs calls
  actually expanded to <code>linuxDev-&gt;driver-&gt;remove(linuxDev)</code>.
  Therefore, we see <code>LinuxPCIDeviceRemoved()</code> makes directs calls
  to a driver's remove() function, by combining with Linux's <code>struct
  pci</code>, and by VMware's introduction of this new calling code.
  Conservancy has confirmed many drivers from Linux are incorporated via
  these mechanisms; one specific example is discussed next.</p>

<h4>Combination of the tg3 driver with &ldquo;vmkernel&rdquo;</h4>

<p>VMware includes a file <code>vmkdrivers/src_9/drivers/net/tg3/tg3.c</code>
  in their source release.  This file appears to be Linux's tg3 driver.  It
  includes a definition of the <code>struct pci_dev</code> for this device,
  which reads:</p>

static struct pci_driver tg3_driver = {
        .remove         = __devexit_p(tg3_remove_one),

<p>Therefore, when the code in <code>LinuxPCIDeviceRemoved()</code>
  calls <code>linuxDev->driver->remove(linuxDev)</code>, the code ultimately
  called (in the case where a tg3 card is driven by the kernel)
  calls <code>linuxDev-&gt;driver-&gt;remove(linuxDev)</code>, the code
  ultimately called (in the case where a tg3 card is driven by the kernel)
  is <code>tg3_remove_one()</code>, which is found in <code>tg3.c</code> and
  comes directly from Linux.</p>

<p>(Note: <code>__devexit_p</code> is a straightforward macro found
  in <code>vmkdrivers/src_92/include/linux/init.h</code> (which also comes
  from Linux) that will simply expand to its first argument in this

<h4>VMware distribution of binary version of <code>tg3.c</code></h4>

<p>VMware furthermore distributes a modified version of <code>tg.c</code> in
<p>VMware furthermore distributes a modified version of <code>tg3.c</code> in
  binary form.  This can be found in <code>usr/lib/vmware/vmkmod/tg3</code>,
  which is extracted by un-vmtar'ing the file <code>net_tg3.v00</code> (found
  on the ESXi 5.5U2 installer ISO image).  Conservancy has confirmed that
  file is a compiled version of <code>tg3.c</code></p>
  on the ESXi 6.0 installer ISO image).  Conservancy has confirmed that
  file is a compiled version of <code>tg3.c</code>.</p>


<p>Given this evidence and related contextual clues, the only logical
  conclusions are:</p>
    <ul><li><code>vmklinux_9</code>, a binary object, dynamically links with
        the binary objects: <code>k.b00</code> and <code>tg3</code> (the
        driver built from <code>tg3.c</code>'s source).  These three binary
        objects together form a single running binary (likely along with many
        other binary objects as well).</li>
      <li>That single running binary contains code licensed under the GPLv2
       &mdash; namely the code derived from <code>tg3.c</code>
@@ -463,97 +465,98 @@ static struct pci_driver tg3_driver = {
          that <q>for an executable work, complete source code means all the
          source code for all modules it contains</q>.</li>
      <li>The binary work in question contains modules from <code>k.b00</code>,
        <code>vmlinux_9</code> and <code>tg3</code>.</li>
      <li>VMware did not provide source code for any modules found in
      <li>Therefore, VMware failed to comply with the GPLv2, as such
      compliance requires source code (or an offer therefor) for the material
        in <code>k.b00</code>.</li>
<p>The above is but one piece of evidence among many, but hopefully it helps
  to explain some of the &ldquo;combined work&rdquo; violations found in
  VMware's ESXi product.</p>
  VMware's ESXi product.  Conservancy did a similar analysis for ESXi 5.0
  as well as ESXi 5.5 Update 2 and found nearly identical results.</p>

<dt id="verify">How can I verify Conservancy's technical findings above?</dt>

<dd><p>The binary and source packages mentioned above are available
on VMware's website.  These packages contain the
previously-mentioned <code>linux_pci.c</code>,
<code>vmkapi_pci_incompat.h</code>, and <code>k.b00</code> files, as well as
    <code>vmklinux_9</code> and the source code that builds the latter.</p>

  <p>To speed up the process, Conservancy has provided
  a <a href=";a=summary">Git
  repository that we built that includes the source components that VMware
  released</a>, and which are discussed above in our examples.  However, one
  can also obtain the source components directly from VMware, by following
  these steps (no login is required):</p>

<li>Visit <a href=""></a>.</li>
<li>Visit <a href=""></a>.</li>

<li>Click the &ldquo;Download&rdquo; button beside the text that reads
&ldquo;Open Source Code for VMware vSphere ESXi 5.5 Update 2&rdquo;.</li>
&ldquo;Open source software accompanying ESXi&rdquo;.</li>

<li>Confirm that the SHA-1 hash matches the published one
  (d121634668a137ec808b63679fd941cef9a59715), found under &ldquo;Read
  (35811b981470abe8b606d8a7a97c9795ce570597), found under &ldquo;Read
  More&rdquo; on that web page.</li>

<li>Mount (or otherwise open) the
  downloaded <code>VMware-ESX-550U2-ODP.iso</code>.</li>
  downloaded <code>VMware-ESXI-600-ODP.iso</code>.</li>

<li>Extract <code>vmkdrivers/src_92/vmklinux_92/vmware/linux_pci.c</code>
  and <code>BLD/build/HEADERS/vmkapi-current-all-public/vmkernel64/release/device/vmkapi_pci_incompat.h</code>
  and <code>BLD/build/HEADERS/vmkapi-current-all-public/generic/release/hardware/vmkapi_pci_incompat.h</code>
  from <code>vmkdrivers-gpl/vmkdrivers-gpl.tgz</code> with tar and gzip.</li>

<li>Generate <code>vmklinux_9</code> by following the steps
  in <code>vmkdrivers-gpl/BUILD.txt</code> in the ISO.
  (Note: <code>vmklinux_9</code> is also available pre-built on a running
  ESXi system; <a href="#vmklinux">see below for instructions on how to access it</a>).</li>

<li>You may need the &ldquo;Supporting Toolchain packages for VMware
  vSphere ESXi 5.5.0 Update 2&rdquo; file from the above download page to
<li>You may need the &ldquo;Open source software disclosure package for
  toolchain&rdquo; file from the above download page to
  complete the build &mdash; upon downloading you will find it is named
  <code>VMware-TOOLCHAIN-550u2-ODP.iso</code> and has a SHA-1 hash of
  <code>VMware-TOOLCHAIN-600-ODP.iso</code> and has a SHA-1 hash of


  <p>To obtain the binary components, follow these steps (a login is required):<p>

<li>Register for an account at <a href=""></a>.</li>

<li>Click the &ldquo;Activate Now&rdquo; link in the follow-up email.  Enter
  the password used at registration time.  Click &ldquo;Continue&rdquo;.</li>

<li>Visit <a href=""></a>.</li>
<li>Visit <a href=""></a>.</li>

<li>Click &ldquo;Register&rdquo; (under the text that reads &ldquo;You have
  not registered for this product&rdquo;).</li>

<li>Enter the number of servers you plan to install on (e.g., 1).  Click

<li>If the &ldquo;VMware vSphere Hypervisor 5.5 Update 2 &ndash;
<li>If the &ldquo;VMware vSphere Hypervisor 6.0 &ndash;
  Binaries&rdquo; section is not expanded, click the plus sign next to it.</li>

<li>Click the &ldquo;Manually Download&rdquo; link that's beside &ldquo;ESXi
  5.5 Update 2 ISO image (Includes VMware Tools)&rdquo;.</li>
  ISO image (Includes VMware Tools)&rdquo;.</li>

<li>Confirm that the SHA-1 hash matches the published one (9475938b51cafc86c8b17d09f2493cb6b4fae927).</li>
<li>Confirm that the SHA-1 hash matches the published one (a38a9d37ea529329338de049679c1dd1687d3860).</li>

<li>Mount (or open via some other means) the
downloaded <code>VMware-VMvisor-Installer-5.5.0.update02-2068190.x86_64.iso</code>.</li>
downloaded <code>VMware-VMvisor-Installer-6.0.0-2494585.x86_64.iso</code>.</li>

<li>Find the <code>k.b00</code> file in the root directory.  Extract it
using <code>zcat k.b00 &gt; vmvisor64-vmkernel</code> (or a similar command).
Repeat the steps described above using <code>objdump -x

<li id="vmklinux">To retrieve <code>vmklinux_9</code> you will need to install
ESXi on your system by booting the ISO and following the instructions.  Once
booted, you can then enable SSH access using &ldquo;Customize System/View Logs -&gt;
Troubleshooting Options -&gt; Enable SSH&rdquo;.  Login to the system with SSH
and then run <code>find /vmfs -name misc_dri.v00 -print</code>.  On the
resulting file, run <code>zcat misc_dri.v00 &gt; misc_dri.vmtar</code> then
@@ -609,25 +612,25 @@ copied Christoph's code into their product.</dd>
        <li><a href="">APRIL</a></li>
        <li><a href="">Free
            Software Foundation</a></li>
        <li><a href="">Free
            Software Foundation Europe</a></li>
        <li><a href="">GNOME Foundation</a></li>
        <li><a href="">Open Source Initiative</a></li>
        <li><a href="">The
            Samba Team</a></li>
        <li><a href="">The
        SWIG Project</a></li>
        <li><a href="">Dave Airlie, Linux Developer</a></li>
        <li><a href="">Dave Airlie, Linux Developer</a></li>
        <li><a href="">Matthew Garrett, Linux Developer</a></li>
        <li><a href="/news/2015/mar/05/vmware-lawsuit/#glikely">Grant Likely, Linux Kernel Engineer</a></li>
        <li><a href="">Michal Nazarewicz, Linux Developer</a></li>
        <li><a href="">Luis R. Rodriguez (aka mcgrof), Linux Developer</a></li>
        <li><a href="">Wolfram Sang, Linux Developer</a></li>
        <li><a href="">Josh
        Triplett, Linux Developer</a></li>
        <li><a href="">Rik van Riel, Linux Developer</a></li>