Changeset - 0ed82d00cb81
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Bradley Kuhn (bkuhn) - 7 years ago 2015-03-12 15:45:18
bkuhn@ebb.org
Add missing <dd> tag.
1 file changed with 4 insertions and 1 deletions:
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www/conservancy/static/linux-compliance/vmware-lawsuit-faq.html
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@@ -141,64 +141,65 @@
 
      <acronym title="complete, corresponding source">CCS</acronym>
 
    release as part of our GPL enforcement efforts described above.</p>
 

	
 
    <p>Conservancy's preliminary investigation indicated that the operating
 
    system kernel of VMware ESXi product consists of three key components:
 
        <ul>
 
          <li> the proprietary component &ldquo;vmkernel&rdquo;, which is
 
            released in binary form only,</li>
 
            <li>the kernel module &ldquo;vmklinux&rdquo;, which contains modified Linux
 
Code, and for which (at least some) source code for which is provided.
 
            <li>other kernel modules with device drivers, most of which are
 
            modified Linux drivers, and for which (at least some) source code
 
              is provided.</li>
 
        </ul>
 

	
 
    <p>Conservancy examined the incomplete CCS alongside the
 
           binary &ldquo;vmkernel&rdquo; component.  Such examination indicates that function
 
           in &ldquo;vmkernel&rdquo; do make function calls to Linux's kernel code
 
      in the usual way for a single program written in C.</p></dd>
 

	
 
    <dt>Doesn't VMware's &ldquo;shim layer&rdquo; insulate them from GPL
 
    obligations and allow them to keep certain code in their kernel
 
    proprietary?</dt>
 

	
 
    <dd>
 
    <p>Many in the media have talked about the possibility that VMware might
 
    use some so-called &ldquo;shim layer&rdquo; between Linux code and
 
    VMware's proprietary code.  While, for decades, there has been much talk of
 
    various mechanisms of GPL obligation avoidance, Conservancy believes that
 
    merely modifying technical details of a combination's construction
 
    does not typically influence the legal analysis in a combined or
 
    derivative work scenario.</p>
 

	
 
    <p>Furthermore, the technical details of VMware's alleged GPL violation
 
    do not even mirror the typical scenarios that have usually been called
 
    &ldquo;shim layers&rdquo;.  Conservancy's analysis of VMware's ESXi
 
    product, in fact, indicates that VMware rather flagrantly combined Linux
 
    code in their own kernel, and evidence seems to indicate the work as a
 
    whole was developed by modifying Linux code in tandem with
 
    modifications to &ldquo;vmkernel&rdquo; in a tightly coupled manner.</p>
 

	
 
    </dd>
 
    <dt>Can you give a <em>specific</em> example, with code, showing how
 
    VMware combined Linux source code with their binary-only components?</dt>
 

	
 
     <dd><p>There are numerous examples available that show this.  The
 
       details of alleged infringement specifically relating to Hellwig's
 
       contributions to Linux are of course the main matter of the
 
       allegations in the litigation, and Conservancy
 
       released <a href="#diagram">the diagram above</a> to exemplify that
 
       issue.  Conservancy continues to <a href="#court-documents">hope VMware will
 
       agree to make public all court documents</a> as a matter of public
 
       good, since the court documents discuss the specifics of alleged
 
         infringement on Hellwig's copyrights.</p>
 

	
 
       <p>However, Conservancy examined VMware's ESXi 5.5 product in detail
 
       even before Hellwig's enforcement action began.  Below is one example
 
       among many where VMware's CCS was incomplete per GPLv2&sect;2(c) and
 
       GPLv2&sect;3(a).  (One can verify these results by
 
       <a href="#verify">downloading and installing the binary and source
 
       packages for VMware's ESXi 5.5 Update 2</a>.)  Note that this
 
       example below is not necessarily regarding
 
       Hellwig's copyrights; VMware incorporated Linux code copyrighted by
 
       many others as well into their kernel.</p>
 

	
 
       <h4>Example of &ldquo;vmkernel&rdquo;'s combination with Linux code</h4>
...
 
@@ -389,48 +390,50 @@ file is also available next to <code>k.b00</code> in the root directory of
 
the ISO (mentioned above), but the <code>vmtar</code> command itself is only
 
available when logged into an ESXi system. <code>vmtar</code> can be found
 
at <code>bin/vmtar</code> inside
 
<code>sb.v00</code> on the ISO, but one needs <code>vmtar</code> to open
 
<code>sb.v00</code>, similar to <code>misc_dri.v00</code> above.</li>
 

	
 
</ol>
 
</p>
 

	
 
  <p>Note that VMware may present you with <acronym title="End User Licensing Agreement">EULA</acronym>s and <acronym title="Terms of Service">ToS</acronym> when you download
 
  software from VMware's website.  Conservancy strongly suggests that you review these
 
  terms in great detail with the assistance of your own legal counsel before
 
  downloading the software and/or engaging in the process that Conservancy
 
  discusses above.</p>
 

	
 
  <dt>Have others issued statements of support about this action?</dt>
 
  <dd>Various individuals and groups have publicly stated their support for
 
    Conservancy's and Hellwig's actions in this matter.  They include:
 
    <ul>
 
        <li><a href="http://www.april.org/en/statement-support-software-freedom-conservancy-and-christoph-hellwig-gpl-enforcement-lawsuit">APRIL</a></li>
 
        <li><a href="https://fsf.org/news/conservancy-and-christoph-hellwig-gpl-enforcement-lawsuit">Free
 
            Software Foundation</a></li>
 
        <li><a href="https://samba.org/samba/news/announcements/2015-03-06_vmware_lawsuit.html">The
 
            Samba Team</a></li>
 
        <li><a href="http://sourceforge.net/p/swig/news/2015/03/defending-the-gpl/">The
 
        SWIG Project</a></li>
 
        <li><a href="https://plus.google.com/104877287288155269055/posts/cHgyreA76yY">Dave Airlie, Linux Developer</a></li>
 
        <li><a href="https://twitter.com/mjg59/status/573530001758294016">Matthew Garrett, Linux Developer</a></li>
 
        <li><a href="/news/2015/mar/05/vmware-lawsuit/#glikely">Grant Likely, Linux Kernel Engineer</a></li>
 
        <li><a href="http://mina86.com/2015/03/11/the-time-has-come-to-stand-up-for-the-gpl/">Michal Nazarewicz, Linux Developer</a></li>
 
        <li><a href="http://lwn.net/Articles/635624/">Luis R. Rodriguez (aka mcgrof), Linux Developer</a></li>
 
        <li><a href="http://lwn.net/Articles/635855/">Wolfram Sang, Linux Developer</a></li>
 
        <li><a href="https://twitter.com/josh_triplett/status/573543072929198083">Josh
 
        Triplett, Linux Developer</a></li>
 
        <li><a href="https://lwn.net/Articles/635617/">Rik van Riel, Linux Developer</a></li>
 
    </ul>
 
  </dd>
 

	
 
<dt>I
 
see <a href="https://fsf.org/news/conservancy-and-christoph-hellwig-gpl-enforcement-lawsuit">FSF's
 
statement of support</a>, but why
 
isn't <a href="https://www.fsf.org/licensing/compliance">FSF enforcing</a> in
 
this case?</dt>
 

	
 
<dd>While FSF are the authors and license steward of the GNU GPL, it's up to
 
the copyright holder to enforce GPL.  VMware created an operating system by
 
combining parts of the kernel named Linux with their own proprietary code,
 
and then added BusyBox to provide the userspace operating system components.
 
As such, ESXi is not
 
a <a href="https://www.gnu.org/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">traditional GNU/Linux
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